# Math ∩ Programming

- Packing Matrix-Vector Multiplication in Fully Homomorphic Encryption

In my recent overview of homomorphic encryption, I underemphasized the importance of data layout when working with arithmetic (SIMD-style) homomorphic encryption schemes. In the FHE world, the name given to data layout strategies is called “packing,” because it revolves around putting multiple plaintext data into RLWE ciphertexts in carefully-chosen ways that mesh well with the operations you’d like to perform. By “mesh well” I mean it reduces the number of extra multiplications and rotations required merely to align data elements properly, rather than doing the actual computation you care about. - Shift Networks

In my recent overview of homomorphic encryption, I underemphasized the importance of data layout when working with arithmetic (SIMD-style) homomorphic encryption schemes. In the FHE world, the name given to data layout strategies is called “packing,” because it revolves around putting multiple plaintext data into RLWE ciphertexts in carefully-chosen ways that mesh well with the operations you’d like to perform. By “mesh well” I mean it reduces the number of extra multiplications and rotations required merely to align data elements properly, rather than doing the actual computation you care about. - MLIR — Defining Patterns with PDLL

Table of Contents In this article I’ll show how to use PDLL, a tool for defining MLIR patterns, which itself is built with MLIR. PDLL is intended to be a replacement for defining patterns in tablegen, though there are few public examples of its use. In fact, the main impetus for PDLL is that tablegen makes it difficult to express things like: Operations that return multiple results Operations with regions Operations with variadic operands Arithmetic on static values While not all these features are fully supported in PDLL yet, they are within scope of the language and tooling. - Fully Homomorphic Encryption in Production Systems

In this living document, I will list all production systems I’m aware of that use fully homomorphic encryption (FHE). For background on FHE, see my overview of the field. If you have any information about production FHE systems not in this list, or corrections to information in this list, please send me an email with sufficient detail allow the claim to be publicly verified. Table of contents: Microsoft’s Password checkup Apple Live Caller ID Lookup Rumors, developments, and things to watch and further verify Case Studies Similar pages Thanks Microsoft’s Password checkup After a proof of concept in two papers 2017-2018 papers by Hao Chen, Zhicong Huang, Kim Laine, and Peter Rindal (1, 2), the Microsoft Edge team implemented a password checkup service that uses FHE to compare a user’s passwords privately against a database of known compromised passwords. - A High-Level Technical Overview of Fully Homomorphic Encryption

About two years ago, I switched teams at Google to focus on fully homomorphic encryption (abbreviated FHE, or sometimes HE). Since then I’ve got to work on a lot of interesting projects, learning along the way about post-quantum cryptography, compiler design, and the ins and outs of fully homomorphic encryption. If you’ve heard about FHE and you’re a software person, you’ve probably heard two things: it lets you run programs directly on encrypted data without ever decrypting it; and it’s still too slow to be useful for anything. - Unusual Tips for Parenting Toddlers

It’s April Cools! Last year I wrote about friendship bracelets and the year before about cocktails. This year it’s parenting. Parenting articles are a dime a dozen and always bury the lede behind a long story. I’ll skip that. How to think about your child and your role as a parent These are framing devices. Concrete things to do to work toward these are in the next section. I will refer to the numbers for each action to show what principle it is applying. - Tabletop Games Based on Math Problems

There’s a family of tabletop games that are based directly on a nontrivial mathematics problem. As a casual and fun way to inaugurate my new blog (migrated from Wordpress to Hugo, after my work on getting better LaTeX mathmode support in Hugo), I thought I’d write a short listicle about them, so that I have a place to add more as I find them, as well as give the shortest canonical description of the associated math problem. - MLIR — A Global Optimization and Dataflow Analysis

Table of Contents In this article we’ll implement a global optimization pass, and show how to use the dataflow analysis framework to verify the results of our optimization. The code for this article is in this pull request, and as usual the commits are organized to be read in order. The noisy arithmetic problem This demonstration is based on a simplified model of computation relevant to the HEIR project. You don’t need to be familiar with that project to follow this article, but if you’re wondering why someone would ever want the kind of optimization I’m going to write, that project is why. - MLIR — Lowering through LLVM

Table of Contents In the last article we lowered our custom poly dialect to standard MLIR dialects. In this article we’ll continue lowering it to LLVM IR, exporting it out of MLIR to LLVM, and then compiling to x86 machine code. The code for this article is in this pull request, and as usual the commits are organized to be read in order. Defining a Pipeline The first step in lowering to machine code is to lower to an “exit dialect. - MLIR — Dialect Conversion

Table of Contents In previous articles we defined a dialect, and wrote various passes to optimize and canonicalize a program using that dialect. However, one of the main tenets of MLIR is “incremental lowering,” the idea that there are lots of levels of IR granularity, and you incrementally lower different parts of the IR, only discarding information when it’s no longer useful for optimizations. In this article we’ll see the first step of that: lowering the poly dialect to a combination of standard MLIR dialects, using the so-called dialect conversion infrastructure to accomplish it.